The sector of making confectionaries (ειδη περιπτερου ), like numerous other markets, has changed considerably in recent times. Although the standard solutions have actually gone through small adjustments, the production modern technologies have actually transformed significantly (this applies particularly to the approaches of developing small products as well as floor tiles, in addition to their product packaging).
At the beginning of this chapter, it appears appropriate to state only these changes, however more on those later related to details dishes.
Various teams of confectionery products require specific molding techniques so that they can be covered and packaged in the most ideal method available. Probably the most successful innovation was the bread bar. These bars allow you to use cost-efficient methods of production, packaging and screen at the point of sale.
At the same time, there were noticeable enhancements in the packaging – both in the products utilized and also in the securing approaches. A lot of benches in order to make certain long shelf life, to protect against insect damages and also contamination call for protective product packaging. We think about these consider different chapters.
We have already taken into consideration the manufacturing of chocolate, and also consequently it is clear that chocolate and complicated lusters have a mostly fatty basis, their wetness material is extremely reduced (generally less than 1%), as well as the ingredients are not in aqueous option.
In many confectionery processes, the liquifying ability of sugar (sucrose) is thought about independently or in combination with various other sugars, such as glucose syrup (corn syrup) and invert sugar. There are 2 primary groups of sugar confectionery products: a) items in which sugar is completely liquified, and also b) products in which sugar is partially liquified, as well as partly present in the form of little strong crystals put on hold in solution. These products might be modified with various other active ingredients (for instance, milk and also fats). The very first group consists of hard candy, hard as well as soft milk desserts, toffee and most jelly candies. The 2nd group includes items such as fudge, fudge (fudge), marshmallows as well as nougat with a noticable fine-crystalline framework.
Overview confectionery production innovations
Listed below we will see that all the range of textures acquired is an outcome of using different technological processes and solutions, all of which call for special techniques for the development of private items. Below we look at basic technology concerns, and also see their specific uses in other sections of this book.
Smearing and cutting
The equipment is geared up with cooled rolls, which enable you to feed the item straight from the gadget, where it is prepared, to home plate forming tools. After molding as well as lamination, the plates are fed to an air conditioning device, and after that to standard cutting devices and spreaders. After that the items are glazed.
Фирма SOLLICH GmbH, г. Бад-Зальцуфлен, Германия.
This is possibly the earliest technique of creating bars (floor tiles) and specific items from plastic products such as fudge, nougat as well as different pastes. A confectionery product in an appropriate plastic state, determined by its dampness, fat material or temperature, is first fed to the rolls to get a plate of the needed density. This plate is after that fed to reducing tools to generate wide strips, which are after that cut into slim ceramic tiles or bars. Presently, the warm product is fed to cooled down rolls, enabling to get multilayer plates. Home plates are continually cut into strips that travel through the (” spreading device)” spreader “, after which the strips are cut into bars or small pieces. An instance of such a procedure is the Sollich Conjug system (Fig. 19.1).
Casting or otsadka
This method is utilized for the manufacturing of candies, fondant and also jelly sweets, some sorts of milk sweets as well as fudge, marshmallows and also other items that can be obtained in fluid type.
Some products in liquid type may be built at a temperature level of concerning 150 ° C in a metal mold whose surface is covered with a “lube”.
Pomadnye, želejnye candy, maršmellou.
These products are usually cast right into cells created in starch (see listed below the section “Fondant shells”). An extra recent growth is the automatic rainfall as well as extraction of fondant coverings and some other confectionery items using steel mold and mildews (Cadbury-Baker Perkins), in addition to the precipitation of sugar as well as toffee into silicone mold and mildews (Baker Perkins). Silicone is a non-tacky material that has distinct residential or commercial properties and is immune to relatively heats, regular for the production of caramel confectionery.
This approach uses almost solely to sweet sugar as well as some types of toffee. The typical flavorful candies, sweets with a filler and “toffee” are made.
The production principle is to cool down the brewed syrup under controlled problems till it gets to a pliable state. In this state, the product is changed into a sort of rope, fed to the stamps, on which the finished products (typically of a particular shape or with a pattern) are acquired from it. The resulting products are immediately sent to the air conditioning cabinet and wrapping machine.
To acquire some kinds of caramel as well as chewy candies, a version of this method is used, in which the harness gotten in a comparable way is fed to a cutting-wrapping equipment, where with the help of high-speed round knives, little items are cut from it that pertained to the covering equipment.
Extrusion and also molding bars.
The principle of extrusion, applied in the manufacturing of many non-food items, has been effectively applied in the confectionery market. The application of this process to the manufacturing of numerous products– from soft products such as marshmallows and also fondant sugary foods to very plastic nougat as well as milk delicious chocolates– is explained in  In this case, the product subjected to extrusion is fed to the electrical outlet nozzles with the help of a number of rolls or augers. The nozzle opening account figures out the shape of the final product, as well as numerous extruders are equipped with a number of nozzles that create harnesses that can be cut into bars or tiny items. In fig. 19.2 shows various rolls for extruders, as well as fig. 19.3 is a Wemer-Lehara extruder random sample with a device for removing tiny pieces from the hairs. In fig. 19.4 reveals the layout of the Weisert-Loser extruder for the extrusion of eating periodontal as well as chewing candy.
The design of the NID bar extruder is somewhat various. The feeding is executed by grooved rollers in the same way as in various other extruders, however the material to be formed is fed to a 2nd account roller. The profiled surface area of the roll is covered with fluoroplastic to make certain very easy splitting up of the material as well as is utilized to form the bars into the required shape. The pins aid get rid of the harnesses onto the conveyor belt.
It is possible to make multi-layer bars in which 2 layers are squeezed out at the same time, or bars with a body from one more confectionery item. Extrusion works well with various other constant manufacturing and also glazing approaches.
When extrusion confectionery need to observe certain precautions.
Temperature. The extrusion temperature is of essential importance, especially when it comes to milk sweet and nougat, the uniformity of which is highly depending on temperature level. Tiny fluctuations in temperature can result in huge adjustments in extrusion pressure. For soft milk sweets, a temperature of 35 to 38 ° C is generally utilized, however much depends on the kind of product, and also the exact temperature.
Scenic tour problems should be identified empirically. Low temperatures and also high pressures cause knockout of extruder safety plugs.
Splitting up of fat … If fat divides throughout extrusion, this signifies poor emulsification. Improvement is attained when an emulsifier (eg lecithin or glyceryl monostearate) is included in the solution.
Destruction after extrusion … After extrusion, some products shed their form, and also the strip, which is practically round in cross-section, after a short time on the strip may end up being noticeably flatter. This is due to several reasons:.
expensive a moisture web content;.
It was not emulsified fat as well as may be as well soft;.
the protein of any kind of milk active ingredient is not appropriately dispersed;.
in fudge or pastes, no crystalline framework has actually created or has been damaged by too much mixing after crystal development. This flaw can be extremely refined, and also in continuous fudge production, its look depends on the moment the taking shape lipstick is added prior to extrusion. It is feasible to determine the optimal conditions for a certain tools only experimentally. Firms concentrating on the production of extrusion tools have actually performed a large quantity of research in the style of equipments for the extrusion of confectionery products of numerous uniformities. For some items – such as gummies and also chewing periodontal – the roll extruder is giving way to a multi-cavity screw (worm) extruder. These innovations are explained in various other sections of the book.
The concept of panning is currently defined in Phase 5. There are 2 kinds of sugar rolling – tough and loosened. With hard knurling, succeeding layers of powdered sugar and syrup are built up on the preferred body (for instance, nuts) and also dried out with cozy air passing in between the applied layers. Loosened knurling is accomplished in a similar means, yet making use of chilly innovation. Soft shells are utilized (for example, pasta, jelly, soft milk filling up), and also the coating is made from sugar (or sugar) syrup as well as powdered sugar. After getting to the preferred dimension and weight of the layer, the candies are partly dried and also covered with glaze. The procedure is fully mechanized, consisting of loading as well as dumping the tanks, automatic splashing of syrups (or chocolate), as well as control of drying out or cooling air to the storage tanks.
Confectionery lipstick made from sugar, sugar or corn syrup and invert sugar is typically signified in English by the word “creme” (lotion), however some typical products make use of the alternative “lotion”, as well as in various nations it is called differently.
The fondant is prepared by liquifying sugar and sugar syrup (or invert sugar) in water as well as focusing by steaming to a remedy having about 88% DM. At ambient temperature level, this service is supersaturated with sugar and unsteady, and also if it is promptly stirred and also cooled down, after that the excess sugar befalls of the solution in the form of small crystals. Thus, the fondant mass has a strong phase of sugar crystals put on hold in a liquid phase consisting of a saturated service of “sugars”.
Without mixing and also cooling down large crystals are created. Whipping by itself provides unacceptable outcomes, considering that a huge quantity of latent heat of condensation is released. If the whipped syrup is left warm, formation slows down and also succeeding slow cooling brings about the formation of large crystals. Fondant of high quality ought to be soft in uniformity.
Originally, lipstick was prepared making use of only sugar, which was dissolved in water and also concentrated by steaming to concerning the degree of 88-90% ST. Considering that the solubility of sugar at normal temperature levels is only 67%, the syrup with a concentration of 90% is extremely unpredictable as well as takes shape upon quick cooling, “offering” huge crystals.
To conquer this downside, an additive was made use of that caused the inversion of a part of the sugar and also boosted the total solubility – this made it possible to whip the syrup right into a fondant mass. Citric or tartaric acids or, much more ideally, tartar (tartaric acid) are utilized therefore ingredients. The formation of invert sugar from sugar is talked about in another chapter, but here we simply keep in mind that such ingredients decompose part of the sugar (sucrose), which is chemically a disaccharide, into 2 monosaccharides, dextrose (sugar) and fructose. Fructose is a lot more soluble (regarding 80% at 20 ° C) than sucrose, and its presence with dextrose enables the focused syrup to be whipped right into a lipstick.
This method of application of the additive is really undependable, since the quantity of invert sugar formed varies greatly relying on the pureness of the sugar, the boiling time and the hardness of the water utilized. Ideal results are acquired by contributing to the sugar syrup a particular amount of invert sugar, ready independently.
Lipstick, made from sugar as well as invert sugar, has a granular structure and is really sweet in preference (it is hardly ever utilized in modern confectionery manufacturing). Glucose (corn) syrup has replaced invert sugar in lipstick solutions; it is much less wonderful, as well as the existence of complex carbohydrates controls the development of crystals as well as provides a more thick lipstick, which does not have a loosened (brittle) appearance.